An illustration by the Boucicaut Master (Flemish or French) who’s real name is unknown from the 15th century depicting Mongolia’s Hulaku with the imprisoned last Abbasid Caliph in Baghadad Al-Musta’sim Billah as the Mongols escort him amongst their treasures!


Baghdad fell in 1258 to the Mongols following ill advise to the caliph which prompted him not to defend the city at full strength.  The caliph was later placed in a sack and horses trampled over him until he died on 20 February 1258.


Arab historians reported numerous massacres committed by the Mongols, including the destruction of the “House of Wisdom” library, which contained priceless books, documents and archives.  The remaining ruling family of the Abbasid dynasty later fled to Egypt under the Mamluks rule, others moved to Bastak south of modern day Iran.

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