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Ibn Khaldun

A sketched illustration by Rembrandt Harmensz, depicting the renowned Muslim Historian and Philosopher Ibn Khaldun (lifetime: 1332 – 1406) pleading with Tamerlane the Mongolian ruler (reign: 1370 – 1450) to hault any possible attacks targeting the city and people of Damascus after the Mamluks retreated from the city upon the arrival of the Mongols.  Tamerlane did not head to Ibn Khaldun’s advice and destroyed the city.

He later marched to Turkey where he confronted and defeated the Ottomans who sheltered previous rulers who Tamerlane wanted.  The battle of Ankara resulted in the fall of Sultan Bayezid in captivity and the re-establishment of the Baylik States in Asia Minor thus resulting in the first and only Ottoman Civil War.  No other medieval ruler is despised by medieval and modern Arab Muslim historians like Tamerlane.

The sketch is found today at the Louvre in France.

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